Spontaneous knee effusion can be a primary symptom of Lyme disease, even without the presence of other primary symptoms, according to results of a literature review.
Researchers of the review noted knee effusion in patients with Lyme disease may appear in the early disseminating stage or in the late disseminating stage as part of Lyme arthritis. Lyme arthritis is developed by 60% of patients with untreated Lyme disease and can lead to permanent joint damage.
Researchers noted the current standard of care for the diagnosis of Lyme disease is a two-tiered blood test using with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and an immunoblot analysis for confirmation. Antibiotics can be used to treat Lyme disease, with 99% of patients diagnosed during early localized infection and 90% of patients with Lyme arthritis responding to therapy, according to results.